BREUER, MARCEL

BREUER, MARCEL (1902–1981), architecture and furniture designer. Breuer was born in Pécs, a city in southwest Hungary. In 1920, after high school, he won a scholarship to the Vienna Academy of Fine Art. Disliking the Academy, he went to work for an architect and then applied to the Bauhaus, a school of applied design in Weimar, Germany. At the Bauhaus, he joined the newly formed furniture workshop. By 1923 he qualified as a journeyman. He became a protégé of Walter Gropius, director of the school. Even so, Breuer became impatient and left for Paris in 1924 to work for an architect. Again disappointed with his career, when Gropius invited him back to the Bauhaus to run the furniture workshop, he accepted. In 1926, Breuer designed his tubular steel chair. Unusually light and easy to assemble from ready-made steel tubes, the result of his years of experiment, the chair became famous. It was later renamed the "Wassily" after Wassily Kandinsky. Breuer taught at the Bauhaus in Dessau until 1928 when he followed Gropius to Berlin, where he set up as an architect but was barred from practice because of lack of experience. After working in Budapest and Switzerland he joined Gropius in London and then in 1937 followed him to the United States, where they both became professors at Harvard University. With much enthusiasm, Breuer taught the principles of the International Style (form follows function) to students such as Philip Johnson and Paul Rudolf, who later became important architects. Breuer and Gropius each built their own homes: two story boxlike structures of glass, wood, and stone rubble. Commissions followed. In 1946 Breuer left Harvard to open an architectural office in New York in partnership with industrial designer Eliot Noyes. The Geller House on Long Island, completed in 1946, was hailed as the "house of the future." This house of glass, wood, and stone became the paradigm for enlightened house design in mid-century with its careful attention to each function of the dwelling. His favorite house plan was an H-plan or a T-plan, designs he used for the many homes he built on the East Coast of the U.S. In 1949 Breuer built and furnished a model home for the Museum of Modern Art and in 1953 he won, together with Pier Luigi Nervi, the competition to design the headquarters of UNESCO in Paris. Also in 1953, Breuer designed the Bijenkorff Department store in Rotterdam. For his large buildings, Breuer shifted to massive concrete block shapes. His major legacy is the 1963 Whitney Museum of Art in New York City. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Hyman, Marcel Breuer:Architect (2001); B. Gatje, Marcel Breuer (2000). WEBSITE: www.designmuseum.org/designerex/marcel-breuer.htm\>\> . (Betty R. Rubenstein (2nd ed.)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • BREUER, Marcel — (1902 1981)    Born in Hungary, Marcel Breuer first trained at the famous Bauhaus School of Design in Germany and worked with the German modernist architect Walter Gropius. Known as one of the founders of modernism in both architecture and… …   Historical Dictionary of Architecture

  • Breuer, Marcel — ▪ Hungarian architect in full  Marcel Lajos Breuer  born May 21, 1902, Pécs, Hung. died July 1, 1981, New York City       architect and designer, one of the most influential exponents of the International Style; he was concerned with applying new …   Universalium

  • Breuer, Marcel — (1902 1981)    furniture designer; best known for his Breuer Chair. A native of Pecs, Hungary, he came to Weimar in 1920 to study design at the Bauhaus.* When the school moved to Dessau in 1925, he went along as the master in charge of the… …   Historical dictionary of Weimar Republik

  • Breuer, Marcel — pseud. di Breuer, Lajos …   Sinonimi e Contrari. Terza edizione

  • Breuer, Marcel — ► (1902 81) Arquitecto húngaro, alumno y profesor de la Bauhaus. Ideó la casa binuclear (zona de noche, zona de día, separadas por el vestíbulo de entrada), y realizó el edificio de la UNESCO (París) …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Breuer, Marcel —  (1902–1981) Hungarian born American architect and designer …   Bryson’s dictionary for writers and editors

  • Breuer, Marcel Lajos — SUBJECT AREA: Architecture and building, Domestic appliances and interiors [br] b. 22 May 1902 Pécs, Hungary d. 1 July 1981 New York (?), USA [br] Hungarian member of the European Bauhaus generation in the 1920s, who went on to become a leader in …   Biographical history of technology

  • Breuer, Marcel (Lajos) — (21 may. 1902, Pécs, Hungría–1 jul. 1981, Nueva York, N.Y., EE.UU.). Arquitecto y diseñador de muebles estadounidense de origen húngaro. Estudió y posteriormente enseñó en la Bauhaus (1920–28), donde en 1925 inventó la famosa silla de acero… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Breuer,Marcel Lajos — Breu·er (broiʹər), Marcel Lajos. 1902 1981. Hungarian born American architect and furniture designer who was associated with the Bauhaus in the 1920s. He is known for his chairs with tubular steel frames. * * * …   Universalium

  • Breuer, Marcel (Lajos) — born May 21, 1902, Pécs, Hung. died July 1, 1981, New York, N.Y., U.S. Hungarian U.S. architect and furniture designer. He studied and then taught at the Bauhaus (1920–28), where in 1925 he invented the famous tubular steel chair. He moved to… …   Universalium

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